The guys are back in the seventeenth century again, looking at the beginnings of challenges to biblical authority. Progressive thinkers of the day starting with the Jewish philosopher Spinoza attacked Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch as a way of undermining orthodox Christianity: since Jesus referred to Moses as the human author of the Law, if Moses didn’t write it, then either Jesus lied or he didn’t know. Either answer would challenge the idea that he was God incarnate. After discussing Spinoza, the guys turned to a debate on Mosaic authorship between French Catholic scholar Richard Simon and Remonstrant scholar Jean LeClerc. This debate, largely forgotten today, triggered a sharp movement away from historic Christian theology into liberal Christianity by thinkers such as John Locke.